Note to authors

This style guide applies to all full-length papers.

Since the guidelines are regularly updated, please reread the guidelines prior to submitting or editing manuscripts.

Before submitting a manuscript, authors are requested to follow the APA style and use the ET&S template along with the add-ins tool for formatting your papers: here.
For more specific layout, please take the already-published paper as a reference.

Editors at The Journal of Educational Technology & Society are open to the many regional variants of English spelling and style, and welcome manuscripts from all over the world. We do ask, however, that authors strive for consistency within their own documents. In addition, for the sake of consistency throughout the book, we will rely on a standard form of punctuation and formatting.

General guidelines

Word count:

Each article should contain the following information:

Special style notes

Manuscripts should be single spaced.

Footnotes and endnotes are not accepted. All relevant information should be included in main text.

Do not indent paragraphs; leave a space of one line between consecutive paragraphs.

Use a single space after end punctuation (i.e., periods, question marks, etc.). Do not use a double space.

Separate keywords with a comma.

Capitalize the first letter of each keyword or key phrase (e.g., Internet-based system, Distance learning).

Do not underline book titles or for emphasis. Use italics instead.

Use "double quotation marks" instead of 'single quotation marks.' Place period and comma inside the quotation marks (e.g., …were characterized as "simple," "useful," and "functional.")

Italicize statistical abbreviations and symbols and include a space between them when necessary (i.e., F = 6.762, p < .01) except Greek character set (η2)

Use numbered lists only if the material must be presented in a particular order (e.g., steps in an experiment). If the order is arbitrary, please use bulleted lists.

Before submitting your manuscript, please ensure that every in-text citation has a corresponding reference in the reference list. Conversely, ensure that every entry in the reference list has a corresponding in-text citation.


Subdivide text into unnumbered sections, using short, meaningful sub-headings. Please do not use numbered headings.

As much as possible, limit heading use to two levels.

If using Word, please use the following heading styles: Heading 1 and Heading 2. If that is not possible, use 12-point bold for first-level headings and 10-point bold for second-level headings. If you must use third-level headings, use 10-point italic.

1st level heading

2nd level heading

3rd level heading

Leave one blank line after each heading and two blank lines before each heading. (Exception: leave one line between consecutive headings.)

Tables and Figures

Set the font size to 10

Embed tables and figures in appropriate areas within the document and center them horizontally. Please make sure that the tables are in text form and not as images.

Align the table content to the left except number in the center. Remove unnecessary vertical lines.

Provide captions (maximum length: 6 to 8 words) for each table or figure. Centre the caption above the text, and reference the table in the text.

Ensure that figures do not exceed 500 pixels in width.

In addition to embedding figures within the text, please provide a separate GIF or JPEG (JPG) file.


At the end of the article, please list all references in alphabetical order (based on authors' last names) at the end of the article. For this section, use the level-one heading, "References".

For references entries, set the font size to 9 and do not indent the references.

Follow the citation procedures of the 6th edition of American Psychological Association (APA) style.

Some key points about APA style:

Do not number in-text citations. Provide the last name(s) of the author(s) and the date of publication in parentheses. (Jones (2003) studied the phenomenon)

Use (1) instead of 1)

Capital the first letter of the sentence after colons if it is a clause (PredicationConfidence: This…)

Add comma after "et al." (Trabasso et al.,)

Comma after "e.g." (e.g.,)

In the reference list, please follow the patterns below. Please note that an en dash (not a hyphen) is used to indicate a range of numbers. To find the en dash in Word, go to Insert > Symbol > Special Characters > En Dash (shortcut: Ctrl+Num-).

Formatting within the Reference List

Below are common examples of formatting references in APA style. For more detailed information regarding citations, please refer to Concise Rules of APA Style, which can be ordered from Some other useful solutions to formatting issues can be found at

Journal article

Laszlo, A., & Castro, K. (1995). Technology and values: Interactive learning environments for future generations. Educational Technology, 35(2), 7-13.

Newspaper article

Blunkett, D. (1998, July 24). Cash for competence. Times Educational Supplement, p. 15.

Book, authored

Brown, S. & McIntyre, D. (1993). Making sense of teaching. Buckingham, England: Open University

Book, edited

Barnhart, R. K. (Ed.). (1988). Chambers dictionary of etymology. New York, NY: The H. W. Wilson Company.

Chapter in book/proceedings

Malone, T. W. (1984). Toward a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction. In D. F. Walker, & R. D. Hess, (Eds.), Instructional software: Principles and perspectives for design and use (pp. 68-95). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Papers presented in a conference symposium

Porter, M., Omar, M., Campus, C., & Edinburgh, S. (2008, January). Marketing to the bottom of the pyramid: Opportunities in emerging market. Paper presented at the 7th International Congress Marketing Trends, Venice, Italy.

Published proceedings in a book

Huang, W.D., Yoo, S.J., & Choi, J.H. (2008). Correlating college students' learning styles and how they use Web 2.0 applications for learning. In C. Bonk et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (pp. 2752-2759). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.

If you couldn’t find the editor(s) of the proceedings, you may supply more information instead, such as doi or URL. Or, you may reformat the reference if it is regularly published online by Lecture Notes in Computer or ACM as follows.

Regularly published proceedings online

Tingley, M. W., Monahan, W. B., Beissinger, S. R., & Moritz, C. (2009). Birds track their Grinnellian nice through a century of climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, 106,19637-19643.

Govaerts, S., Verbert, K., Klerkx, J., & Duval, E. (2010). Visualizing activities for self-reflection and awareness. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 6483, 91-100.

Internet reference

British Learning Association (2005). Quality mark profiles. Retrieved August 10, 2005, from

Language Style Sheet

Below are problematic words and specific style decisions. Words and phrases are listed alphabetically. Other usage notes follow. Please review this section regularly so that you are aware of the most recent updates.


among (not amongst)

audiovisual (one word)

cooperative (no hyphen)


Data - okay to use with singular verb when used as mass noun. (i.e., the data was examined.) Use with plural verb is always acceptable.

et al. (roman, followed by period)

e-learning (and similar words), lowercase 'e' unless at start of sentence; in title caps, use e-Learning, unless it appears at the beginning of the sentence, in which case E-learning is acceptable.

e.g., (followed by comma)

email (no hyphen)

follow up (verb); follow-up (noun)



i.e., (followed by comma)


keyword (one word)

lifelong (one word)


multimedia (one word)



practice (noun); practise (verb)

runtime (one word)


that/which - see note below

toward (no 's' unless 'towards' appears in the title of a previously published study)

travel, traveler, traveling, etc. (single 'l')


troubleshoot, troubleshooting



web (lowercase)

website (one word)

which/that - see note below

whilst - please use 'while'

People's Names // Place Names

van't Hooft (Van't Hooft if at start of sentence)


Use numerals for numbers greater than nine, unless they start the sentence.

If numbers represent times, dates, ages, size, score, points on scale, etc., use numerals.

Spell out ordinal numbers, e.g., sixth grade. (exception: works cited).


Use serial commas: ham, eggs, and cheese.

Use en-dash to show range of number: 10-12.

No spaces surrounding en-dashes

One space before and after em-dashes

One space only after periods and colons

Use double quotation marks, except for quotes within quotes, which require single quotation marks.

Format web citations as follows: Retrieved February 16, 2002, from

Use single space before and after symbols in mathematical equations, e.g., 5 + 7 = 4y.


Capitalize first word after semi-colon in titles of works.

Capitalize first letter of main words in ifets article titles.

Capitalize keywords when they are one word; if multiple words, capitalize first word only, e.g., Computer-assisted learning.

Spell out acronyms on first use, and put acronym in brackets, e.g., information technology (IT).

Use a period after each initial of authors' names and follow with a single space.


Use APA style. If this style guide differs from APA, follow the style suggestion of this guide.

That/which - use "that" for restrictive clauses, "which" for nonrestrictive clauses. For example: The boy that ate too much ice cream is sick. Ice cream, which contains sugar, can be bad for your teeth.

For a note to accompany a table, italicize the word "note" and follow with a period: Note.

© Journal of Educational Technology & Society
Last update: November 3, 2014

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